What does the PNS Product Combo do?
Purple non-sulfur bacteria (PNSB) are extremely ancient microorganisms that occur everywhere on Earth from terrestrial soils to deep sea sediments. They are well known for their adaptability, being capable of utilizing all four major modes of metabolism: chemoautotrophy, chemoheterotrophy, photoautotrophy, photoheterotrophy. They may function similarly to nitrifying bacteria (chemoautotrophs), heterotrophic bacteria (chemoheterotrophs), or plants/algae (photoautotrophs). But they are most interesting and useful as photoheterotrophs. While able to survive in aerobic environments, PSNB are “happiest” where there is little-to-no oxygen, moderate light and plentiful organic matter.
Even the relatively clear waters over tropical coral reefs can become littered with tiny bits of suspended particulate organic matter (POM). On reefs, POM may wash in from adjacent habitats or accumulate locally from animal feces, expelled coral mucus, copepod exoskeletons, etc. Though not very palatable by themselves, these particles are nutritionally enriched as they are colonized by various types of microbes. Particle surfaces become increasingly nutritious (and anaerobic) with the arrival of more and more colonizers.
Musilage secreted by resident microbes causes suspended organic matter to stick together, which reduces its buoyancy and causes it to slowly sink. The resulting clumps are referred to as marine snow. PNSB, which are highly digestible and wholesome, are known to be associated with marine snow. Both suspended and settled marine snow are important food sources for filter-feeders and detritivores respectively.
What’s in the Combo?
PNS Probio™ contains cultures of live PNSB. These naturally occurring and highly beneficial microbes contribute to a balanced nitrogen cycle, efficiently taking up excess ammonia, nitrite and nitrate. On the other hand, where sources of inorganic nitrogen have been depleted (ultra-low nutrient systems), they are capable of performing nitrogen fixation. This is extremely important, as recent research has revealed that PNSB (e.g. Rhodopseudomonas palustris) form critical mutualistic associations with stony corals, providing both the coral and its zooxanthellae with a “built-in” source of nutrients. Also, stony and soft corals alike have been shown to directly consume PNSB, which are rich in protein, vitamins and carotenoids. Plus, they act as powerful probiotics! Regular use of PNS Probio™ cleans the aquarium by consuming excess organic matter and nutrients and so reduces the amount of time/money spent on water changes, gravel vacuuming, changing chemical filter media, etc.
Composed of all-natural chitin fragments that are coated with R. palustris, PNS YelloSno™ effectively simulates a marine snowfall. After a proprietary curing process, this nutritous coral food is preserved for a long shelf life by flash pasteurization. With a wide particle size range, it may be captured and consumed by a large variety of suspension-feeding animals (e.g. corals). It is rich in protein, vitamins and amino acids.
Why use the combo? While each of these products works great on its own, the pair works even better in tandem. This is because you gain the water-cleaning/probiotic qualities of the live product (PNS Probio™); proliferation of the live bacteria is promoted by use of the food (PNS YelloSno™) which provides a rich source of B vitamins (which R. palustris cannot synthesize but requires for growth).
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While it is safe to use both products at the same time, we suggest using each every other day on an alternating basis; for example, use ProBio on the first day, use YelloSno the second day, ProBio on the third, YelloSno on the fourth, and so on. See below for specific instruction for each product.
Benefits of PNS Probio™ are as follows:
- It has an extensive shelf life (stored at room temp).
- It is easy to measure and dose.
- It naturally and safely removes unsightly buildups of organic matter.
- It reduces the need for water changes and prolongs the life of chemical filtrants.
- It removes harmful ammonia, nitrite and nitrate.
- It is a highly nutritious food for many aquarium filter-feeders and detritivores.
- Its probiotic properties can reduce the incidence of disease in diverse aquarium species.
Benefits of PNS YelloSno™ are as follows:
- It has an extensive shelf life (pasteurized, requires refrigeration).
- It is easily measured and dosed.
- It agglomerates into a very wide range of particle sizes.
- It is accepted by many aquarium filter-feeders and detritivores.
- It is rich in protein and B vitamins.
Directions and Usage for PNS Probio™:
Shake the bottle to gently but thoroughly mix contents. Pour directly into the aquarium in an area of high flow. Turn off UV sterilizers for 24 hours. When used to establish new aquaria, this product is best added just after the system is “cycled” and just prior to stocking livestock. However, it may be used at any time to improve coral health/growth or to remove sludge, nutrients or dissolved organic matter. Store at room temperature.
Dosage: Add up to 16.9 fluid ounces PNS Probio™ per 400 US gallons (approximately 1.25 ml/gal). Risk of overdose is extremely low with these safe, probiotic bacteria.
Directions and Usage for PNS YelloSno™:
Shake the bottle thoroughly for fine particle sizes or lightly for larger particle sizes. Pour small amount of dose (approximately 10%) directly into the main tank in an area of high flow to prime animals for feeding (preferably just after lights-out). Once corals and other suspension feeders have exhibited a feeding response, add the remaining portion. While certain strong, natural odors may become evident, they are normal and dissipate shortly after use. Keep refrigerated at all times!
Dosage: Add up to 16.9 fluid ounces PNS YelloSno™ per 500 US gallons per feeding session (approximately 1 ml/gal). As with all foods, it is best used sparingly to maintain good water quality.