Purple non-sulfur bacteria (PNSB) are extremely ancient microorganisms that occur everywhere on Earth from terrestrial soils to deep sea sediments. They are well known for their adaptability, being capable of utilizing all four major modes of metabolism: chemoautotrophy, chemoheterotrophy, photoautotrophy, photoheterotrophy. They may function similarly to nitrifying bacteria (chemoautotrophs), heterotrophic bacteria (chemoheterotrophs), or plants/algae (photoautotrophs). But they are most interesting and useful as photoheterotrophs. While able to survive in aerobic environments, PSNB are "happiest" where there is little-to-no oxygen, moderate light and plentiful organic matter.
Even the relatively clear waters over tropical coral reefs can become littered with tiny bits of suspended particulate organic matter (POM). On reefs, POM may wash in from adjacent habitats or accumulate locally from animal feces, expelled coral mucus, copepod exoskeletons, etc. Though not very palatable by themselves, these particles are nutritionally enriched as they are colonized by various types of microbes. Particle surfaces become increasingly nutritious (and anaerobic) with the arrival of more and more colonizers.
Musilage secreted by resident microbes causes suspended organic matter to stick together, which reduces its buoyancy and causes it to slowly sink. The resulting clumps are referred to as marine snow. PNSB, which are highly digestible and wholesome, are known to be associated with marine snow. Both suspended and settled marine snow are important food sources for filter-feeders and detritivores
What's in the Combo?
contains cultures of live PNSB. These naturally occurring and highly beneficial microbes contribute to a balanced nitrogen cycle, efficiently taking up excess ammonia, nitrite and
nitrate. On the other hand, where sources of inorganic nitrogen have been depleted (ultra-low nutrient systems), they are capable of performing nitrogen fixation. This is extremely important, as recent research
has revealed that PNSB (e.g. Rhodopseudomonas palustris
) form critical mutualistic associations with stony corals, providing both the coral and its zooxanthellae with a "built-in" source of nutrients. Also, stony and soft corals alike have been shown to directly consume PNSB, which are rich in protein, vitamins and carotenoids. Plus, they act as powerful probiotics! Regular use of PNS Probio™ cleans the aquarium by consuming excess organic matter and nutrients and so reduces the amount of time/money spent on water changes, gravel vacuuming, changing chemical filter media, etc.
Composed of all-natural chitin fragments that are coated with R. palustris
, PNS YelloSno™
effectively simulates a marine snowfall. After a proprietary curing process, this nutritous coral food is preserved for a long shelf life by flash pasteurization. With a wide particle size range, it may be captured and consumed by a large variety of suspension-feeding animals (e.g. corals). It is rich in protein, vitamins and amino acids.
Why use the combo? While each of these products works great on its own, the pair works even better in tandem
. This is because you gain the water-cleaning/probiotic qualities of the live product (PNS Probio™); proliferation of the live bacteria is promoted by use of the food (PNS YelloSno™) which provides a rich source of B vitamins (which R. palustris
cannot synthesize but requires for growth).
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