Purple nonsulfur bacteria (PNSB) are extremely ancient microorganisms that are found everywhere on Earth from terrestrial soils to freshwater and marine sediments. They are notable for their adaptability, as they are capable of all four major modes of metabolism: chemoautotrophy, chemoheterotrophy, photoautotrophy, photoheterotrophy. This means that they may function similarly to nitrifying bacteria (chemoautotrophs), heterotrophic bacteria (chemoheterotrophs), or plants/algae (photoautotrophs). But they are most unusual, interesting and indeed useful as photoheterotrophs.
While able to survive in aerobic environments, PSNB are "in their element" where there is little-to-no oxygen, at least some light and plentiful organic matter. Such conditions are common just under the surface layer of aquarium substrates. Left to accumulate, these pools of dissolved and particulate organic waste can adversely affect water quality/clarity and contribute to oxygen depletion. Thus, regular use of Hydrospace™ PNS Probio™ reduces the amount of time and money spent on water changes, gravel vacuuming, changing chemical filter media, etc. It is especially useful in the planted refugium
where it may take up algal exudates in situ
What's more, these naturally occurring and highly beneficial microbes contribute to a balanced nitrogen cycle. First of all, they efficiently sequester excess ammonia, nitrite and
nitrate. On the other hand, where sources of inorganic nitrogen have been depleted, they are capable of performing nitrogen fixation. This is quite significant, as recent research
has revealed that PNSB (and Rhodopseudomonas palustris
in particular) form important mutualistic associations with stony corals, providing both the coral animal and its zooxanthellae with a continuous, on-site source of nutrients. Stony and soft corals alike have been shown to directly consume PNSB, which are rich in protein, vitamins and color-enhancing carotenoids. Even more, they act as powerful probiotics!
PNS Probio™ is effective in both freshwater and saltwater aquaria. And, it is completely safe, non-toxic and non-pathogenic. PNSB may vary in color from yellow to red to purple depending upon pigment content, which is determined by environmental and dietary factors; product color may vary from yellow-orange to orange-red. Reddish-purple to dark brown bioflocculants (which may form in the bottle) do not affect product quality.
The most significant benefits are as follows:
- It has an extensive shelf life.
- It is easy to measure and dose.
- It naturally and safely removes unsightly buildups of organic matter.
- It reduces the need for water changes and prolongs the life of chemical filtrants.
- It removes harmful ammonia, nitrite and nitrate.
- It is a highly nutritious food for many aquarium filter-feeders and detritivores.
- Its probiotic properties can reduce the incidence of disease in diverse aquarium species.
Directions and Usage for PNS Probio™:
Shake the bottle well. Pour directly into the aquarium in an area of high flow. Turn off UV sterilizers for 24 hours. While some odors may become evident, they are normal and quickly dissipate shortly after use.
Over time, a rusty brown to deep purple band may become evident through the glass in the anaerobic subsurface layers of the substrate. When used to establish new aquaria, this product is best added just after the system is "cycled" and just prior to stocking livestock. However, it may be used at any time to improve coral health/coloration or to remove sludge, nutrients or dissolved organic matter.
Dosage: Add up to
16 fluid ounces PNS Probio™ per 400 US gallons (approximately 1 ml/gal). As with most culture media (which contain food for the bacteria), it is best used sparingly to avoid spikes in dissolved nutrient concentration. If used with PNS YelloSno™, apply alternately rather than on the same days. May be re-dosed monthly for continuous nutrient and dissolved organics management.